Normal Anatomy of the Elbow
The arm in the human body is made up of three bones that join together to form a hinge joint called the elbow. The upper arm bone or humerus connects from the shoulder to the elbow forming the top of the hinge joint. The lower arm or forearm consists of two bones, the radius and the ulna. These bones connect the wrist to the elbow forming the bottom portion of the hinge joint.
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Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome is a condition characterized by compression of the ulnar nerve in an area of the elbow called the cubital tunnel.
The ulnar nerve travels down the back of the elbow behind the bony bump called the medial epicondyle, and through a passageway called the cubital tunnel.
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Tennis elbow is the common name used for the elbow condition called lateral epicondylitis. It is an overuse injury that causes inflammation of the tendons that attach to the bony prominence on the outside of the elbow (lateral epicondyle).It is a painful condition occurring from repeated muscle contractions at the forearm that leads to inflammation and micro tears in the tendons that attach to the lateral epicondyle. The condition is more common in sports activities such as tennis, painting, hammering, typing, gardening and playing musical instruments.
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Tommy John’s (UCL tear of elbow)
The ulnar collateral ligament or UCL is one of the main stabilizing ligaments in the elbow especially with overhead activities such as throwing and pitching. When this ligament is injured it can end a professional athlete’s career unless surgery is performed. UCL Reconstruction surgery, also called Tommy John surgery, involves replacing the torn ligament with a tendon from elsewhere in the body.
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Rupture of the Biceps Tendon
The biceps muscle is located in the front of your upper arm. It helps in bending your elbow, rotational movements of your forearm and maintaining stability in the shoulder joint. It has two tendons, one of which attaches it to the shoulder bone (proximal biceps tendon) and the other attaches it at the elbow (distal biceps tendon). The biceps tendon can tear at the shoulder or elbow with overuse or injury when you lift heavy objects or fall on your hand.
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Triceps Tendon Tear
The triceps is the large muscle in the back of the elbow that serves to straighten your elbow. Ruptures involving the distal triceps tendon are relatively uncommon and normally results from a sudden injury such as a fall on an outstretched hand or a direct blow to the elbow. It can also result from weight lifting and through use of anabolic steroids. Risk factors for distal triceps tendon tear include olecranon bursitis, hyperparathyroidism and local corticosteroid use.
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Elbow Throwing Injuries
An athlete uses an overhand throw to achieve greater speed and distance. Repeated throwing in sports such as baseball and basketball can place a lot of stress on the joints of the arm, and lead to weakening and ultimately, injury to the structures in the elbow.
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Elbow contracture refers to a stiff elbow with limited range of motion. It is a common complication following elbow surgery, fractures, dislocations, and burns.
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Three bones, the humerus, radius and ulna, make up the elbow joint. Elbow fractures may occur from trauma, resulting from various reasons; some of them being a fall on an outstretched arm, a direct blow to the elbow, or an abnormal twist to the joint beyond its functional limit.
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Biceps Tendon Repair
The biceps muscle is located in front of your upper arm. It helps in bending your elbow as well as in rotational movements of your forearm. Also, it helps to maintain stability in the shoulder joint. The biceps muscle has two tendons, one of which attaches it to the bone in the shoulder and the other attaches at the elbow.
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Elbow arthroscopy, also referred to as keyhole or minimally invasive surgery, is performed through tiny incisions to evaluate and treat several elbow conditions.
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Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
- Arthritis of the Elbow
- Biceps tendinitis
- Broken arm
- Colles’ fracture
- Dislocated Elbow
- Elbow Bursitis
- Elbow Fractures in Children
- Erb’s Palsy (Brachial Plexus Injury)
- Forearm Fractures in Children
- Olecranon (Elbow) Fractures
- Radial Head Fractures
- Rupture of the biceps tendon
- Tennis Elbow
- Throwing injuries in the elbow
- Ulnar nerve entrapment