Foot & Ankle
The foot and ankle in the human body work together to provide balance, stability, movement, and propulsion.
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The hind foot is comprised of two bones, the talus bone which connects to the bones of the lower leg, and the calcaneus bone which forms the heel. The Midfoot is comprised of the navicular, cuboid, and three cuneiform bones. The forefoot is made up of five metatarsal bones and 14 toe bones called phalanges. The hind foot is separated from the midfoot by the mediotarsal joint and the midfoot is separated from the forefoot by the Lisfranc joint.
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The ankle joint is composed of three bones: the tibia, fibula, and talus which are articulated together. The ends of the fibula and tibia (lower leg bones) form the inner and outer malleolus, which are the bony protrusions of the ankle joint that you can feel and see on either side of the ankle. The joint is protected by a fibrous membrane called a joint capsule, and filled with synovial fluid to enable smooth movement.
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Achilles Tendon Rupture
Tendons are the soft tissues connecting muscles to the bones. The achilles tendon is the longest tendon in the body and is present behind the ankle, joining the calf muscles with the heel bone. Contraction of the calf muscles tightens the achilles tendon and pulls the heel, enabling foot and toe movements necessary for walking, running and jumping.
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Ankle Sprains are a common injury that occurs from over stretching or tearing of the ligaments that support the ankle. The ankle is composed of bones forming a joint and ligaments are the elastic structures which are responsible for holding these bones in their proper place. Ligaments and other soft tissues function to prevent abnormal movement such as twisting, turning, and rolling of the foot beyond the normal range.
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The plantar fascia is a long, thin ligament present along the bottom of the foot that creates the arch of the foot. It extends from the heel bone, and then splits and fans out to attach itself to the toes.
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Athletic Ankle Fractures
An ankle fracture is a common injury that involves a break in one or more bones that make up the ankle joint. Sometimes ligaments may also be damaged. Ankle fractures are most often caused by motor vehicle accidents, rolling or twisting of the ankle, tripping or falling or during sports activities.
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Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle joint to evaluate and treat a variety of conditions.
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Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
- Achilles tendon
- Adult (Acquired) Flatfoot
- Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle
- Ankle Fractures
- Athletic Shoes
- Rotura de tobillo (Broken Ankle)
- Broken Ankle
- Diabetic foot
- Flexible flatfoot in children
- Foot Pain
- Fracture of the Talus
- Fractures of the Heel
- Hammer toe
- Heel Pain
- Ingrown Toenail
- Orthotic Devices
- Pediatric Thigh Bone Fracture
- Plantar fasciitis
- Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction
- Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle
- Sprained Ankle
- Stiff Big Toe (Hallux rigidus)
- Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle
- Toe and Forefoot Fractures